Sometimes, you might have noticed red and blue blood vessels visible through your skin. Have you become a little embarrassed or worried about them? Do you wonder what they are? They are called spider veins. Here, we will discuss the causes and treatments of spider vein.
What causes spider veins?
Spider veins are a mild manifestation of venous reflux disease. They are small, tangled groups of blood vessels that are found just beneath the skin surface. These dilated veins have the appearance of spider webs or branches, and are normally spread out around the legs and feet.
What are the risk factors?
Spider vein risk factors are like those associated with varicose veins, including advancing age, occupations requiring extended periods of standing, obesity, heredity factors and hormonal changes. People can also develop this condition because of prolonged exposure to ultraviolet rays or as a result of weak vessel walls.
From the risk factors, it is clear that some people are prone to this problem than others. For example, if you work as a surgeon, a teacher or a nurse, chances are high that you could develop this condition. Similarly, if there is a genetic history of weak vein valves, the probability of developing spider veins is also high. The same applies to hormonal changes, which mainly occur during puberty, pregnancy and menopause.
The exact cause of spider veins is yet to be established. Existing risk factors can be divided into two general sub-divisions, i.e. congenital causes and acquired causes. In congenital causes, there port-wine stain, Maffucci’s syndrome and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (also known as osler-weber-rendu syndrome), among others. The acquired causes include acne rosacea, chemotherapy and lifestyle/occupation risk factors (as discussed above).
What symptoms are associated with spider veins?
Spider veins are painful in some cases, with cramping and aching. They often result in a feeling of heaviness in the legs, and throbbing, burning or tingling sensations. In addition, other symptoms such as fatigue, itching and swelling can also be experienced. In advanced cases, this condition can develop phlebitis, large sores and ulcers. However, spider veins are detected by their appearance in the majority of incidences.
Tests and Diagnosis
Doctors usually employ non-invasive diagnostic tests to diagnose this condition. These tests are perfectly safe and painless, with no scalpels, needles or medication needing to be involved. The entire procedure is normally very brief, and generally won’t take you more than an hour.
There are three main things that doctors seek to answer through these diagnostic tests. Firstly, they want to establish any evidence of deep vein blood clots. Secondly, they discover whether the veins are functioning properly. And lastly, they test the Greater Saphenous Vein (GSV) to determine if it is working well.
A competent vein specialist will always undertake this exercise before treating your condition. Some of the procedures that you can expect include:
*Color-flow Duplex Exam – This is used to evaluate the anatomy of the affected veins. It determines the direction of blood flow, openings and blockages. This procedure is also important in the process of vein mapping (done for skin deep problems).
*Bi-directional Doppler Exam – This is an ultrasound exam used to determine the speed of blood flow and whether it pauses during normal breathing. It also seeks to identify whether your veins are working properly.
*Photoplethysmography – Phew! Don’t let this complicated medical term intimidate you. Photoplethysmography is basically a diagnostic procedure that determines the efficiency of your calf muscle pump.
*Pressure Calf Exam – In performing this exam, you’ll be asked to lie facing upwards with legs raised higher than your chest. This diagnostic procedure seeks to identify any vessel blockages.
After establishing the specific nature of your problem, the doctor will then recommend the best treatment for you. There are several available options:
Sclerotherapy involves the doctor injecting a saline solution into the affected veins. The solution then damages the affected vessel walls, causing them to swell and seal shut. Within several weeks the scar tissue will fade. The sclerotherapy procedure takes approximately 30 minutes, and has only mild side-effects. Though the injection may be a bit painful, the stinging sensation is usually gone within a few minutes.
Laser and Intense Pulsed Light
This treatment employs the use of a specialised device that focuses laser energy to the damaged tissue. The whole procedure takes only twenty minutes, and has minimal side-effects.
Natural remedies can mean the difference between undergoing medical procedures or not, and are valuable alongside medical treatment. Some recommended herbal remedies include:
*Horse Chestnut Seed – Studies show that this seed helps to improve blood circulation in the legs thus strengthening the veins and capillaries.
*Bilberry Extract – This herbal extract is known to stimulate new capillary formation thus strengthening the capillary walls.
*Butchers Broom – This herb strengthens veins.
*Gotu Kola – A very effective extract in addressing venous insufficiency, foot swelling and water retention. It therefore provides a good solution to spider veins found on the legs.
*Distilled Witch Hazel – This is directly applied on the affected areas using a cotton ball. Numerous clinical studies have shown that this extract can help strengthen blood vessels.
Caution: For health safety purposes, do not start using any herbal remedies without consulting a qualified doctor.
Spider veins prevention
Two of the most important things regarding the prevention of spider veins are eating a balanced diet and getting regular exercise. Eating a diet higher in fresh, raw fruits and vegetables than meat and convenience food is crucial, and if your job requires you to stand for a long time, you need to regularly shift your body weight from one leg to another as well as standing evenly balanced.
To sum things up, the procedure of a spider vein removal is chosen by several key factors. Your specialist will determine the best treatment options based on the results obtained from the diagnostic tests. We hope that this article will provide all the necessary guidance you need in addressing this problem.